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Antike Mayaschätze

Antike Mayaschätze

Antike Mayaschätze

We must differentiate between this more recent environmental history and a more longstanding preoccupation with the history of nature.

The latter rose to prominence as a scientific discipline in the 18th century under the title of natural history.

By the early 18th century, about 10, plant species had already been identified. The latter work received great attention among the expanding Enlightenment bourgeois public and was translated into many European languages.

Natural history was in this case conceived of largely without development. Nature was simply described and classified.

The discipline was distinguished by a supposed fidelity to nature. By contrast, the role of humans in this natural history was depicted as dynamic and positive.

Their stepping out of nature became a metaphor for progress and early-bourgeois emancipation.

This survey article will not recapitulate or elaborate on details of the basic elements linked to it.

To the extent that the state of research permits, it will instead attempt to repeatedly test whether nature and the environment have contributed to the emergence of the communication space that is Europe, whether and where — from an environmental historical perspective — commonalities and also distinguishing features can be identified.

In this, historical human-nature relationships are understood as being as diverse as the European continent and its history.

Nature and the environment are thus more suitable as objects for the observation of this European diversity than almost any other topic field.

This is done in four sections. First, with the spaces, climate and resources, the natural foundations of Europe are examined. In the second section, this is then related more closely to humans, with the focus being placed in particular on cultural landscapes, animals and natural disasters.

The relationship between nature and the environment and the three fundamental historiographical categories of rule, economy and culture are outlined in the third section, before the final section introduces some general attempts at environmental historical periodizations taking account of European history.

The emergence of environmental history was accompanied by a controversy about its orientation and its centre. What should be the focus of its interest?

Humans or nature? Should environmental history be written biocentrically or anthropocentrically? Is it in fact possible for it to adopt the perspective of an earthworm, a wolf or an oak?

Does this not raise a host of insurmountable methodological difficulties and problems regarding sources? Many historians view this controversy as having been decided.

They evaluate it as part of the adolescent search for identity of a young subdiscipline that has since been overcome. One challenge lies, for example, in the reconstruction of natural states and largescale landscape changes that were not, or were only slightly influenced by humans, such as changes in river courses.

Generally, this places very long and diverse geological and biological time periods on the research agenda.

Scientifically proving and exposing in a nuanced way the pre-existing dynamic inherent in nature is among the most prominent achievements of such broad environmental historical approaches.

An environmental history that is exclusively anthropocentric in approach and that draws solely on the archives of society cannot do this on its own.

Biological and geological data from the archives of nature are as indispensable for our knowledge of such processes as are natural sciences approaches: thermometry, pluviometry udometry , dendrochronology, fossil pollen grains, data gathering from glacial ice cores, radiocarbon methods, and the identification of glacial deposits and sizes are just some of these.

Even though research practice often does not reflect this, it has been an argumentative tool of environmental history from the start that ecological processes in no way stop at national borders.

As we approach our own present time, this certainly applies to the European continent also. Borders that are too rigid and that are at best political borders are in any case a hindrance for the analysis of the interrelationships between humans and nature.

Environmental history cannot and must not therefore be limited to the political space. They are all mutable, self-dynamic natural foundations and points of departure, which influence and change humans and vice versa.

Even though very different landscapes can emerge in the minds of humans and be virtually superimposed on the geographically tangible and measurable space, environmental history like most other subdisciplines invariably needs concrete spaces for investigation, if it is to remain demonstrative and if it is to avoid arguing exclusively in terms of the history of ideas.

However, past natural spaces must be approached with methodological caution. They are often difficult to read. For example, due to the distinct language and symbols used in them, cartographic representations are not self-explanatory.

Neither should they be confused with the real thing, not only because they are snapshots that are overtaken by natural change even at the moment they are produced and they are intended to reduce complexity, but also because they often contain mistakes or are guided by specific interests.

Just looking at the map of Europe dispels any doubt. It is not possible to identify clear and unchanging topographical, geographical or geological borders.

There is no European environment. Instead, we encounter many environments, which are generally not coterminous with national borders.

Not even the perspective from the outside creates the impression of uniformity. The natural spaces could hardly be more diverse.

The way in which geological activity has shaped this European space and constantly changes it is the object of investigation of the various environmental historical disciplines referred to above.

It is they who have provided explanations for the location of the Alps, the repeated glacial climatic changes, the continuous change in European flora and fauna, and they help to elucidate the small scale of European landscapes, and the diversity of habitats.

While most of the continent lies in the temperate latitudes, the climate could scarcely be more varied from north to south and from west to east: the arctic climate in the north; the Mediterranean, at times subtropical conditions in the south, with hot dry summers and mild, wet winters.

While large parts of western Europe mainly have mild winters and cooler summers, the continental climate predominates in the east, with cold winters and hot summers.

Climate, as a statistically recordable and measurable dimension, is also bound to space and time, for example, to early modern southern Europe or modern central Europe.

The basic climatic conditions described above are, of course, not immovable constants. Even before historical climatology, we knew that the climate is subject to natural deviations not caused by humans, which in turn influence humans and their actions.

It was not till the second edition published in that Braudel ascribed considerably more significance to climate changes. However, no role was yet attributed to humans as actors in this change.

In more recent times, humans have left their imprint on the climate, which is why for the last approximately years it must be dealt with in the section on anthropogenic environments.

The heated debate about whether the modern interglacial has anthropogenic causes and is being amplified by humans is part of this context.

Emphasizing natural spatial and climatic differences on the European level does not mean that it is impossible to investigate commonalities.

Thus, similar ecotypes can be identified in small-scale European comparisons. Mirco-climatically comparable cultural landscapes and shared histories of over utilization beyond political-state allegiances can be investigated: for example, wine-growing regions, types of woodland management, national parks, national conservation areas and mining regions.

Natural resources are also part of the natural environment of humans. Discussions of these resources usually focus on the consumption of non-renewables or resources that regenerate over very long time periods, such as coal and oil, as well as the unintended consequences of their use.

Concerns about the availability of energy resources have thus served from the start as an important impetus in environmental historical research, in the questions it pursues, in its theses and also in its periodizations.

However, this is not a history that only began with industrial modernity, and not just from a European perspective.

Humans use water to drink, to irrigate, to generate energy and as a means of transportation. Securing a reliable and safe supply of water was for a long time the primary resource problem, particularly in the urban centres, where an artificial network of streams and canals often had to be constructed to provide water, for waste disposal and for fire defences.

Whether for heating, cooking or building, whether for tools, barrels or ploughs, wood was also an essential resource.

It accompanied humans through their lives literally from the cradle to the grave. It is no coincidence that the concept of sustainability emerged in the context of woodland management as early as the beginning of the 18th century.

Of course, one cannot but acknowledge that resource issues and resource usage have taken on new dimensions over the past two centuries and again since the s.

Since , humans have used more gold, iron ore, copper and tin than in the entirety of human history before that. All resource usage has an inherent, hidden environmental problem.

Resources are extracted, chemically processed, transported, incompletely consumed, leave remainders in the form of refuse and exhaust fumes and are reused — the treatment of natural resources goes through many stages, and it is not only the recycling of resources that has yet to be adequately investigated.

The problems of today are either global in nature or they only become clearer when one looks back in the regional context, which is also dominated by a diversity that is not always free of contradictions.

Distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic environments is an archetypal differentiation, in order to highlight spheres of influence of humans.

These spheres of influence have grown over the course of history to the extent that it is now almost impossible to identify a natural environment under water, on land, in the atmosphere or in space directly around the earth that is not influenced by humans.

Particularly in southern and central Europe, it is likely that already by the late-medieval period there were few natural landscapes that remained untouched by humans.

Even in those places where nature lovers of the 19th and earlyth centuries believed they had discovered wilderness and primitive nature, we see diverse cultural landscapes.

The human footprint has fundamentally shaped European landscapes and not only since industrialization. Logging near settlements, slash-and-burn deforestation, arable farming and hunting — without wishing to create the impression of decline and overuse — these influences on the immediate surroundings were manifold already in antiquity and the Middles Ages and transformed the landscape.

The emergence of urban centres, road networks and trade connections accompanied and accelerated this process, which affected flora as well as fauna.

Animals are increasingly perceived as historical actors, as subjects, and no longer exclusively as a static background and as objects.

For a long time this was not commonly understood, at least not in European historiography. While social history had already investigated the beginnings of animal protection, research on human-animal interconnections has only gained momentum in recent years.

New perspectives have come primarily from the English-speaking world, where interdisciplinary human-animal studies has been a topic of environmental history for some time.

Where are the boundaries between humans and animals? How much animal is still in a human? Can personality and intentionality be ascribed to animals as an object of investigation?

It is no coincidence that these questions remind one of the controversy about biocentric versus anthropocentric environmental history.

They cannot be decided by historical studies alone, which concentrates on the social roles and cultural functions of human-animal relationships, to the extent that these can be determined from the archives of society.

However, in order to get as close as possible to the biological creature, for example to be able to judge the natural behaviour of an early modern wolf, bear, beaver or otter that is being pursued, we are again dependent on natural sciences disciplines such as behavioural biology.

In the cities in particular, animals were integral to the human environment, not just as beasts of burden and livestock, but also as synanthropes and pets.

Whether livestock, particularly horses, underwent a direct loss of significance in the course of the fundamental processes of industrialization and urbanization remains to be determined.

There are some indications that this was not the case, but research in this area is in its early stages.

We have more information about the countless exotic animals that populated the European urban centres and courts — dead or alive, in naturalist museums as well as in the menageries of rulers and zoological gardens.

Supposed liminal cases between the species are particularly informative as regards the relationship between humans and animals of the respective period.

The so-called Hottentot Venus Sarah Baartmann ca. The animal welfare perspective of the 19th and 20th centuries, which was rooted in the European Enlightenment, opens up a European angle.

Associations for the protection of animals began to emerge in the first half of the 19th century, mostly at the local level. By the second half of the 19th century, national associations had formed in many other countries, and connections began to form between these associations throughout Europe through international animal protection congresses.

The above should not be understood as a plea for a Eurocentric view of animal-human relationships. In this context also, the perspective must extend beyond Europe if we are to discover common European aspects.

The shared colonial past of the European rulers and states presents one such transnational opening of perspective. In many cases, a history of exploitation emerges here.

While other factors were also at play, in Ireland alone around one million people died as a result. A fungus which grows on the tubers, stalks and leaves caused the potatoes to rot and the years around provided ideal conditions for its spread.

Like the potato itself, the fungus very probably originated in South America — as DNA analyses strongly suggest.

Whether floods, earthquakes, storms, fires or volcanic eruptions, societies decide when events become natural disasters — they construct them.

While this is certainly true, this perspective sometimes causes nature itself to disappear from the radar of research— it becomes purely the trigger for investigation.

Partly as a result of these culturalistic approaches, for a number of years research on natural disasters has been one of the most productive areas of environmental history, including — or especially — in a cross-period perspective from antiquity to the present.

A large portion of the research focuses on the Middles Ages and the early modern period. This is also a consequence of current debates about climate change, to which destructive natural events are often attributed.

Extreme events also lend themselves to research because there is usually an excellent basis of primary sources.

Research in this area has focused on questions regarding destruction and efforts to cope with it, the resulting social and political conflicts and their consequences, but also perception and interpretation, and fundamental structures.

Whether it is possible to identify a European pattern, shared cultural or institutional strategies and learning effects beyond knowledge transfer must ultimately remain an open question, but comparable modes of interpretation and coping can definitely be observed for catastrophes in endangered regions such as the Alps and the maritime coasts.

These events display to the observer the eruptive, quick and violent aspect of nature, that which sticks out of the seemingly gently flowing stream of events.

This requires an appropriate methodological response and must not result in a mere list of successive natural disasters.

The natural environment should be viewed as a central historical axis. It has its own significance and its own dynamic, which is worth researching.

Without it humans cannot survive. Humans are fundamentally dependent on it, as they use it, acquire it, and exploit it.

This should also be clear from the discussion above. Consequently, this section refers back to a number of ecological aspects that have already been mentioned and discusses them.

Nature and the environment are not politics-free zones, quite the opposite. Almost in a unique way, European history demonstrates that nature and the environment are fundamental factors in the process of state formation.

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For the first time, woodlands close to cities gradually changed from being exclusively a source of timber to being places for respite and enjoyment. The diversity of nature and the environment in Europe is examined in various fields. Thus, similar ecotypes Kostenlos Downloaden Automatenspiele be identified in small-scale European comparisons. Discussions of these resources usually focus on the consumption of non-renewables or resources that regenerate over very long time periods, such as coal and oil, as well as the unintended consequences of their use. A large portion of the research focuses on the Middles Ages and the early modern period. And the meaning source a tattoo may only be created after its bearer keeps being asked.

Instead, we encounter many environments, which are generally not coterminous with national borders. Not even the perspective from the outside creates the impression of uniformity.

The natural spaces could hardly be more diverse. The way in which geological activity has shaped this European space and constantly changes it is the object of investigation of the various environmental historical disciplines referred to above.

It is they who have provided explanations for the location of the Alps, the repeated glacial climatic changes, the continuous change in European flora and fauna, and they help to elucidate the small scale of European landscapes, and the diversity of habitats.

While most of the continent lies in the temperate latitudes, the climate could scarcely be more varied from north to south and from west to east: the arctic climate in the north; the Mediterranean, at times subtropical conditions in the south, with hot dry summers and mild, wet winters.

While large parts of western Europe mainly have mild winters and cooler summers, the continental climate predominates in the east, with cold winters and hot summers.

Climate, as a statistically recordable and measurable dimension, is also bound to space and time, for example, to early modern southern Europe or modern central Europe.

The basic climatic conditions described above are, of course, not immovable constants. Even before historical climatology, we knew that the climate is subject to natural deviations not caused by humans, which in turn influence humans and their actions.

It was not till the second edition published in that Braudel ascribed considerably more significance to climate changes. However, no role was yet attributed to humans as actors in this change.

In more recent times, humans have left their imprint on the climate, which is why for the last approximately years it must be dealt with in the section on anthropogenic environments.

The heated debate about whether the modern interglacial has anthropogenic causes and is being amplified by humans is part of this context.

Emphasizing natural spatial and climatic differences on the European level does not mean that it is impossible to investigate commonalities.

Thus, similar ecotypes can be identified in small-scale European comparisons. Mirco-climatically comparable cultural landscapes and shared histories of over utilization beyond political-state allegiances can be investigated: for example, wine-growing regions, types of woodland management, national parks, national conservation areas and mining regions.

Natural resources are also part of the natural environment of humans. Discussions of these resources usually focus on the consumption of non-renewables or resources that regenerate over very long time periods, such as coal and oil, as well as the unintended consequences of their use.

Concerns about the availability of energy resources have thus served from the start as an important impetus in environmental historical research, in the questions it pursues, in its theses and also in its periodizations.

However, this is not a history that only began with industrial modernity, and not just from a European perspective.

Humans use water to drink, to irrigate, to generate energy and as a means of transportation. Securing a reliable and safe supply of water was for a long time the primary resource problem, particularly in the urban centres, where an artificial network of streams and canals often had to be constructed to provide water, for waste disposal and for fire defences.

Whether for heating, cooking or building, whether for tools, barrels or ploughs, wood was also an essential resource. It accompanied humans through their lives literally from the cradle to the grave.

It is no coincidence that the concept of sustainability emerged in the context of woodland management as early as the beginning of the 18th century.

Of course, one cannot but acknowledge that resource issues and resource usage have taken on new dimensions over the past two centuries and again since the s.

Since , humans have used more gold, iron ore, copper and tin than in the entirety of human history before that. All resource usage has an inherent, hidden environmental problem.

Resources are extracted, chemically processed, transported, incompletely consumed, leave remainders in the form of refuse and exhaust fumes and are reused — the treatment of natural resources goes through many stages, and it is not only the recycling of resources that has yet to be adequately investigated.

The problems of today are either global in nature or they only become clearer when one looks back in the regional context, which is also dominated by a diversity that is not always free of contradictions.

Distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic environments is an archetypal differentiation, in order to highlight spheres of influence of humans.

These spheres of influence have grown over the course of history to the extent that it is now almost impossible to identify a natural environment under water, on land, in the atmosphere or in space directly around the earth that is not influenced by humans.

Particularly in southern and central Europe, it is likely that already by the late-medieval period there were few natural landscapes that remained untouched by humans.

Even in those places where nature lovers of the 19th and earlyth centuries believed they had discovered wilderness and primitive nature, we see diverse cultural landscapes.

The human footprint has fundamentally shaped European landscapes and not only since industrialization.

Logging near settlements, slash-and-burn deforestation, arable farming and hunting — without wishing to create the impression of decline and overuse — these influences on the immediate surroundings were manifold already in antiquity and the Middles Ages and transformed the landscape.

The emergence of urban centres, road networks and trade connections accompanied and accelerated this process, which affected flora as well as fauna.

Animals are increasingly perceived as historical actors, as subjects, and no longer exclusively as a static background and as objects.

For a long time this was not commonly understood, at least not in European historiography. While social history had already investigated the beginnings of animal protection, research on human-animal interconnections has only gained momentum in recent years.

New perspectives have come primarily from the English-speaking world, where interdisciplinary human-animal studies has been a topic of environmental history for some time.

Where are the boundaries between humans and animals? How much animal is still in a human? Can personality and intentionality be ascribed to animals as an object of investigation?

It is no coincidence that these questions remind one of the controversy about biocentric versus anthropocentric environmental history.

They cannot be decided by historical studies alone, which concentrates on the social roles and cultural functions of human-animal relationships, to the extent that these can be determined from the archives of society.

However, in order to get as close as possible to the biological creature, for example to be able to judge the natural behaviour of an early modern wolf, bear, beaver or otter that is being pursued, we are again dependent on natural sciences disciplines such as behavioural biology.

In the cities in particular, animals were integral to the human environment, not just as beasts of burden and livestock, but also as synanthropes and pets.

Whether livestock, particularly horses, underwent a direct loss of significance in the course of the fundamental processes of industrialization and urbanization remains to be determined.

There are some indications that this was not the case, but research in this area is in its early stages. We have more information about the countless exotic animals that populated the European urban centres and courts — dead or alive, in naturalist museums as well as in the menageries of rulers and zoological gardens.

Supposed liminal cases between the species are particularly informative as regards the relationship between humans and animals of the respective period.

The so-called Hottentot Venus Sarah Baartmann ca. The animal welfare perspective of the 19th and 20th centuries, which was rooted in the European Enlightenment, opens up a European angle.

Associations for the protection of animals began to emerge in the first half of the 19th century, mostly at the local level.

By the second half of the 19th century, national associations had formed in many other countries, and connections began to form between these associations throughout Europe through international animal protection congresses.

The above should not be understood as a plea for a Eurocentric view of animal-human relationships.

In this context also, the perspective must extend beyond Europe if we are to discover common European aspects.

The shared colonial past of the European rulers and states presents one such transnational opening of perspective. In many cases, a history of exploitation emerges here.

While other factors were also at play, in Ireland alone around one million people died as a result.

A fungus which grows on the tubers, stalks and leaves caused the potatoes to rot and the years around provided ideal conditions for its spread.

Like the potato itself, the fungus very probably originated in South America — as DNA analyses strongly suggest. Whether floods, earthquakes, storms, fires or volcanic eruptions, societies decide when events become natural disasters — they construct them.

While this is certainly true, this perspective sometimes causes nature itself to disappear from the radar of research— it becomes purely the trigger for investigation.

Partly as a result of these culturalistic approaches, for a number of years research on natural disasters has been one of the most productive areas of environmental history, including — or especially — in a cross-period perspective from antiquity to the present.

A large portion of the research focuses on the Middles Ages and the early modern period. This is also a consequence of current debates about climate change, to which destructive natural events are often attributed.

Extreme events also lend themselves to research because there is usually an excellent basis of primary sources. Research in this area has focused on questions regarding destruction and efforts to cope with it, the resulting social and political conflicts and their consequences, but also perception and interpretation, and fundamental structures.

Whether it is possible to identify a European pattern, shared cultural or institutional strategies and learning effects beyond knowledge transfer must ultimately remain an open question, but comparable modes of interpretation and coping can definitely be observed for catastrophes in endangered regions such as the Alps and the maritime coasts.

These events display to the observer the eruptive, quick and violent aspect of nature, that which sticks out of the seemingly gently flowing stream of events.

This requires an appropriate methodological response and must not result in a mere list of successive natural disasters. The natural environment should be viewed as a central historical axis.

It has its own significance and its own dynamic, which is worth researching. Without it humans cannot survive. Humans are fundamentally dependent on it, as they use it, acquire it, and exploit it.

This should also be clear from the discussion above. Consequently, this section refers back to a number of ecological aspects that have already been mentioned and discusses them.

Nature and the environment are not politics-free zones, quite the opposite. Almost in a unique way, European history demonstrates that nature and the environment are fundamental factors in the process of state formation.

For much of history, they were even decisive prerequisites for the rise and fall of rule. This applies to access to resources as well as to the location of centres of rule and the geostrategic control of territories.

It is no coincidence that medieval castles are situated at elevated locations in the landscape where they can be seen for miles around and which make it very difficult for an enemy to capture them.

It is no coincidence that questions of space are also questions of power. For example, hunting, which was referred to above in the context of human-animal relationships, is inextricably interwoven with the imposition, maintenance and symbolism of rule.

In industrial modernity, states have declared their commitment to the protection of nature and the environment and have enshrined it in law at the national level and at the European level — whether the aim is to secure the natural foundations for life or to preserve, research and protect supposedly endangered nature in national parks.

Restrictions on access to woodlands and European environmental law since are two prominent examples of the juridification of the utilization of the environment and of environmental damage, which occurred from the pre-modern period onward.

This state-driven juridification constitutes a common European feature. Conversely, political conditions and societal systems have ecological consequences, whether intended or not: for example, slash-and-burn farming, communal landownership and the process of European expansion.

Environmental issues usually become key political issues when access to, the use of, and the control of resources that are essential for life are involved.

Environmental history has paid attention to statehood and politics from the beginning, not least because the state and village communes in Europe have always played a fundamental role in the treatment of nature and the environment.

For example, environmental history has investigated the relationship between the state and industry, regulatory functions, relevant authorities and interventions, the relationship between politics and environmental social movements.

On the ecological plus side, there is the strong position and the public services of many European cities, who played a leading role from the global perspective — not only in the construction of abattoirs, and gas and electricity works.

Many core problems are closely linked to the relationship between the fundamental element economy and ecology, not least the issue of a secure and lasting energy supply.

Questions regarding energy and resources are not only crucial ecological issues, from timber-burning and water-powered, to coal-burning and oil-burning, and finally to atomic energy.

For a long time, from an economic perspective the natural environment was viewed as a free supply that gave rise to no or only low costs in the production process and was not worth protecting for its own sake.

Early environmental history in particular identified this as the dark side of human economic activity and viewed industry as a, or even the, ecological villain.

This often formed the basis for narratives of exploitation and ruin. Stories of over-exploitation and pollution particularly in conurbations, where the ecological footprint of humans as a result of population growth, industrialization and consumption had had a particularly pronounced effect, were a common feature of this research.

Even though these processes were an enormous strain on the environment, these early environmental historiographical efforts have proved to be all too one-sided.

The spectrum of topics has broadened considerably and has gained a foothold in economic and company history. Infrastructures, recycling and the further utilization of refuse are just some of the more recent topics.

However, it should be noted that the system of managing woodlands in a sustainable manner is very much a successful European model that has had a far-reaching effect.

Fundamentally, every form of interpretation and appropriation, of speaking and writing about nature and the environment — i.

Numerous movements in history gave rise to their own images and concepts of nature, which became imprinted and still affect the perception of the landscape today.

It has also become clear the extent to which even environmental problems are constructed and symbolically loaded. This is demonstrated not least by the debate about so-called Waldsterben forest dieback in central Europe in the s.

Openness towards the popular cultural forms of protest of the new social movements and the functions of the media, which served as a catalyst for knowledge and the controversy about nature and the environment, are also features of this environmental history with a cultural historical influence.

However, a visual history of nature and the environment is only in its early stages, though it holds great potential, not only for recent history.

Initially the press, and subsequently also the main and recreational medium of television, and in recent times the internet accompanied the changes in ecological perceptions and awareness in Europe.

Images that had a strong effect on the public were already a central feature in the early stages of the animal welfare and nature conservation movements.

Where the perception and communication of environmental political problems is concerned, images disseminated through the modern mass media have assumed enormous importance.

In particular, the internationally active environmental organisation Greenpeace rose from the s onwards to a leading position in the ecological fraternity, not least because its members were very adept at dramatizing environmental problems and disasters, and at concretizing them visually and symbolically as a David versus Goliath struggle — a little rubber dinghy against a big oil rig.

Of course, this example once again shows that Greenpeace and other environmental organizations are global players which are strongly anchored in western Europe — no less, but also no more.

It is worth noting again that natural processes and cycles usually proceed at a different speed than the processes and events of human history — for example, the unfavourable climatic phase from the late-medieval period to the 19th century the so-called Little Ice Age , the rotation period of trees or the half-life of atomic waste materials.

Since its beginnings, there has been an observable focus in environmental historical research on modern and recent history.

The reasons for this are various. The research questions often relate to the present. Human interference in nature and the environment has increased enormously since industrialization, resulting in immense damage.

There are also more primary source materials for the more recent past. This presumably partly explains why there are fewer environmental historical periodizations for antiquity and the medieval period.

Studies on these periods are often structured around the established political and social watersheds and merely draw attention to the intensification of the utilization of land and resources, to the slow population growth as well as to the resulting spread of environmental damage, which came nowhere near the levels of urbanized industrial modernity.

He identified the emergence of Christianity as the cause of the ecological and societal crisis of his time.

Frequently used symbols include signs of. Tattoo-Sprüche oder auch Zitate sagen etwas Besonderes über die Persönlichkeit des Trägers aus und spiegeln häufig seine Lebenseinstellungen wider.

Find and download the right font for your next tattoo. Lettering styles include tribal, traditional sailor, blackletter, fancy, cursive, script, etc Schön Freundinnen Tattoo Anker.

Sternzeichen Tattoo - Symbole und Bedeutung designs buddhistischesymbole schütze handgelenk tribal zwillinge stier jungfrau nacken tätowierungen fische henna tattoodesigns Mehr dazu Finde diesen Pin und vieles mehr auf tattoos von Haus Dekoration Mehr.

Griechischer Gott Tattoo. Magische Symbole. Magische Symbol. Bitte nehmen Sie sich die Zeit, die Webseite zu durchforsten Wenn Sie einen prägnanten Ausblick auf einen längeren Zeitraum ein Jahr, einen Monat oder auch nur für eine Woche haben möchten, dann wählen sie diese.

Die das tun, finden es offenbar hipper als Händeschütteln. Manche nennen es auch Faustcheck - also ein spielerisches Kräftemessen.

Die das tun, finden es offenbar hipper als Händeschütteln Entweder sie lassen sich genau dasselbe kleine blumchen stechen wie ihre freundin oder ihre tochter oder sie variieren zumindest die farbe.

Sternzeichen tattoo stier Welche bedeutung steckt hinter einem kompass tattoo. Tijdelijke T. This feature is not available right now.

Please try again later sternzeichen tattoo symbole und bedeutung tattoos zenideen. We list meaning behind some of the most popular tattoo meanings.

Nutzen Sie die MyLebara App. Guthaben einsehen und Ausgaben im Überblick behalten Tattoo Designs, die auf dem neuesten Stand sind.

Jedes Sternzeichen hat sein eigenes Symbol und seine eigenen Bedeutungen. Xavier Tattoo Ideas. Not all tattoos have to be meaningful, not all meaningful tattoos have to be big to prove things.

Here are small tattoos with big meanings. What's beautiful about tattoos is they really don'. Tattoo designs incorporate various objects like flowers, fish, feather, arrow, anchor, stars, religious symbols and text and words, all bearing significant meanings.

One of the most important designs with worldwide popularity is Phoenix tattoos. Die astrologische Libra wurde immer mit der Venus verbunden, was der lateinische Name für die gleiche Göttin ist.

Eine antike Stele Bildsäule in Karthago zeigte die Göttin zusammen mit ihrem Symbol, der Zahl 8, das Zeichen des vollkommenen Gleichgewichts, das zum Unendlichkeitszeichen und auch zur Zahl der Tarotkarte Gerechtigkeit wurde Posted in Tattoo Tagged libra sternbild waage, sternbild nach waage, sternbild waage 5 buchstaben, sternbild waage hellster stern, sternbild waage kreuzw Post navigation Previous post Skorpion Tattoo Bedeutung.

Der Erreger der Lepra. Finde diesen Pin und vieles mehr auf Tattoos von Ireen Fallak.. Tag Phoenix Tattoos Designs and Ideas for men and women It will be your best decision to choose the phoenix tattoo to get it done on your body.

There are so many tattoo designs which shows their different meanings. And the meaning of a tattoo may only be created after its bearer keeps being asked.

This tattoo is often referred to as the love knot especially when more than one path is interwoven with another.

The Celtic Knot is an ancient design that is used to represent something that is unending like love or humanity 17 best images about celebrity tattoos on pinterest from channing tatum tattoo arm bedeutung.

Tattoos have been becoming increasingly well-liked over the last few. Suchen Sie nach Ideen für Ihr neues Tattoo?

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3 Comments

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